OR when dealing with financial returns do you assume that the data you have is the population? I don’t know of any typical sort of skew. Sonali, How to determine skewness for qualitative variable? High kurtosis in a data set is an indicator that data has heavy tails or outliers. You can test for skewness and kurtosis using the normal distribution as described on the following webpages> A distribution that “leans” to the right has negative skewness, and a distribution that “leans” to the left has positive skewness. We consider a random variable x and a data set S = {x1, x2, …, xn} of size n which contains possible values of x. Kurtosis that significantly deviates from 0 may indicate that the data are not normally distributed. Whether the skewness value is 0, positive, or negative reveals information about the shape of the data. Pranjal Srivastava, Your email address will not be published. Kurtosis is all about the tails of the distribution â not the peakedness or flatness. All rights Reserved. http://www.real-statistics.com/tests-normality-and-symmetry/statistical-tests-normality-symmetry/dagostino-pearson-test/ See especially Figure 4 on that webpage. This version has been implemented in Excel 2013 using the function, It turns out that for range R consisting of the data in, Excel calculates the kurtosis of a sample, Figure 2 contains the graphs of two chi-square distributions (with different degrees of freedom. In SPSS, the skewness and kurtosis statistic values should be less than ± 1.0 to be considered normal. Therefore, the excess kurtosis is found using the formula below: Excess Kurtosis = Kurtosis â 3 . Thank you very much for sharing this and setting the record straight. metric that compares the kurtosis of a distribution against the kurtosis of a normal distribution You can also use a transformation as described on the following two webpages: Multinomial and Ordinal Logistic Regression, Linear Algebra and Advanced Matrix Topics, http://www.real-statistics.com/tests-normality-and-symmetry/analysis-skewness-kurtosis/, http://www.real-statistics.com/tests-normality-and-symmetry/statistical-tests-normality-symmetry/dagostino-pearson-test/, http://www.real-statistics.com/real-statistics-environment/data-conversion/frequency-table-conversion/, http://www.statisticshowto.com/pearsons-coefficient-of-skewness/, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4321753/pdf/nihms-599845.pdf, http://www.aip.de/groups/soe/local/numres/bookcpdf/c14-1.pdf. Below are my results when I test, for context I am testing portfolio returns across different industries. Types of Kurtosis. In token of this, often the excess kurtosis is presented: excess kurtosis is simply kurtosisâ3. Kurtosis, on the other hand, refers to the pointedness of a peak in the distribution curve. if R is a range in Excel containing the data elements in S then KURT(R) = the kurtosis of S. Observation: The population kurtosis is calculated via the formula, which can be calculated in Excel via the formula. Nonetheless, I have tried to provide some basic guidelines here that I hope will serve you well in interpreting the skewness and kurtosis statistics when you encounter them in analyzing your tests. It is used to describe the extreme values in one versus the other tail. As a general guideline, skewness values that are within ±1 of the normal distributionâs skewness indicate sufficient normality for the use of parametric tests. Kurtosis interpretation Kurtosis is the average of the standardized data raised to the fourth power. If Pr (Skewness) is <.05 and Pr (Kurtosis) >.05 then we reject on the basis of skewness and fail to reject on the basis of kurtosis. Caution: This is an interpretation of the … I doubt it, but have you tried to check this out? Skewness; Kurtosis; Skewness. I am testing whether the data is symmetric enough that I can use one of the standard statistical tests. See Figure 1. Along with variance and skewness, which measure the dispersion and symmetry, respectively, kurtosis helps us to describe the 'shape' of the distribution. Say you have a range of data A1:C10 in Excel, where the data for each of three groups is the data in each of the columns in the range. I want to know ‘what is the typical sort of skew?’, Soniya, skewness tells you the amount and direction of skew(departure from horizontal symmetry), and kurtosis tells you how tall and sharp the central peak is, relative to a standard bell curve. Charles, very dificult to compute a curtosis how to be know a sample is group or ungrouped data, Jessa, What the differences and similarities between skewness and kurtosis? Sample kurtosis that significantly deviates from 0 may indicate that the data are not normally distributed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skewness We can use the the sktest command to perform a Skewness and Kurtosis Test on the variable displacement: sktest displacement. 2. Kind regards, Say the value 5 appear 3 times, 8 appears 2 times and 9 appears once. Charles. Charles, Hi Charles, When you look at a finite number of values (e.g. Please let me know if we have some data set with sizes with volume percentages to calculate skewness and kurtosis, Do I need to divide the data set into same size classes or different size classes is okay. Thus, I don’t know what it means for the peak to be 1.6 times the average (which is the mean). Figure B shows a distribution where the two sides still mirror one another, though the data is far from normally distributed. Charles. Any standardized values that are less than 1 (i.e., data within one standard deviation of the mean, where the “peak” would be), contribute virtually nothing to kurtosis, since raising a number that is less than 1 … Skewness is the extent to which the data are not symmetrical. The Real Statistics Resource Pack provides various approaches for doing this, but again it depends on what you mean by grouped data. In the referenced webpage, I am not testing for 100% symmetry. If skewness is between â½ and +½, the distribution is approximately symmetric. Skewness essentially measures the relative si… Is that general? The idea is similar to what Casper explained. FRM Part 1, Statistics. You would probably use SKEW(), although the results are probably fairly similar. A rule of thumb says: If the skewness is between -0.5 and 0.5, the data are … In other words, kurtosis measures the 'tailedness' of distribution relative to a normal distribution. Charles, but this of yours still considers kurtosis as peakedness, Hi Charles. Both curves are asymmetric and skewed to the right (i.e. It indicates the extent to which the values of the variable fall above or below the mean and manifests itself as a fat tail. See Figure 1. The distribution is skewed to the left. The bell curve has 0 skew (i.e. How is the data being filtered? The data set can represent either the population being studied or a sample drawn from the population. Kurtosis is defined as follows: Failure rate data is often left skewed. This is the Chi-Square test statistic for the test. Thanks for catching this typo. If the data is highly skewed, can we still rely on the kurtosis coefficient? can u explain more details about skewness and kurtosis. Dr. Donald Wheeler also discussed this in his two-part series on skewness and kurtosis. The difference is 2. The solid line shows the normal distribution and the dotted line shows a distribution with a negative kurtosis value. A normality test which only uses skewness and kurtosis is the Jarque-Bera test. The skewness formula is not shown correctly on the page. We will compute and interpret the skewness and the kurtosis on time data for each of the three schools. what does -.999 means? There is no precise definition of an outlier. Many books say that these two statistics give you insights into the shape of the distribution. Normally distributed data establishes the baseline for kurtosis. Hi, Charles, Maree, Maree, You can use the formula =SKEW(5, 5, 5, 8, 8, 9) to calculate this. Data Transformations For example, data that follow a t-distribution have a positive kurtosis value. The question arises in statistical analysis of deciding how skewed a distribution can be before it is considered a problem. Observation: It is commonly thought that kurtosis provides a measure of peakedness (or flatness), but this is not true. In This Topic. “Kurtosis tells you virtually nothing about the shape of the peak – its only unambiguous interpretation is in terms of tail extremity.” Dr. Westfall includes numerous examples of why you cannot relate the peakedness of the distribution to the kurtosis. Difficulty interpreting Skewness and Kurtosis Results 12 Oct 2020, 07:45. It depends on what you mean by grouped data. Andrew, Grace, A symmetric distribution such as a normal distribution has a skewness of 0, and a distribution that is skewed to the left, e.g. Skewness, in basic terms, implies off-centre, so does in statistics, it means lack of symmetry. Looking at S as representing a distribution, the skewness of S is a measure of symmetry while kurtosis is a measure of peakedness of the data in S. Excel Function: Excel provides the KURT function as a way to calculate the kurtosis of S, i.e. Sorry, but I don’t understand your question. I have the formula SKEW(5, 8, 9) – using cell references, but would like the calculation to be SKEW(5, 5, 5, 8, 8, 9). Further, I took a look on the skewness and kurtosis of my distribution. … Caution: This is an interpretation of the data you actually have. Setting up the dialog box for computing skewness and kurtosis. 2. Charles. This is not correct. How can I interpret the different results of skewness from different formulas? This is described on the referenced webpage. This is consistent with the fact that the skewness for both is positive. I want to make sure by ” n ” A symmetrical dataset will have a skewness equal to 0. Can you further explain what do you mean by extremities (i.e. It is used to describe the extreme values in one versus the other tail. KURT(R) = -0.94 where R is a range in an Excel worksheet containing the data in S. The population kurtosis is -1.114. Hadi, hi; But lack of skewness alone doesn't imply normality. For example, the Kurtosis of my data is 1.90 and Skewness is 1.67. Kurtosis is sensitive to departures from normality on the tails. Use skewness and kurtosis to help you establish an initial understanding of your data. Observation: SKEW(R) and SKEW.P(R) ignore any empty cells or cells with non-numeric values. Definition 2: Kurtosis provides a measurement about the extremities (i.e. This value implies that the distribution of the data is slightly skewed to the left or negatively skewed. hi charles, … For example, the âkurtosisâ reported by Excel is actually the excess kurtosis. Charles. Observation: When a distribution is symmetric, the mean = median, when the distribution is positively skewed the mean > median and when the distribution is negatively skewed the mean < median. This sort of rounding approach is not what is commonly used (nor does it have much validity). Hafiz, Skewness is the extent to which the data are not symmetrical. You can test whether skewness is significantly different from zero (and similarly for kurtosis) as described on the following webpage: A distribution that has a positive kurtosis value indicates that the distribution has heavier tails than the normal distribution. Positive skewed or right skewed data is so named because the "tail" of the distribution points to the right, and because its skewness value will be greater than 0 (or positive). A distribution that âleansâ to the right has negative skewness, and a distribution that âleansâ to the left has positive skewness. • The skewness is unitless. As per my knowledge the peak in bell curve is attended in mean (i.e by 6.5 month) but if i want peak at 40% month (i.e 12*40/100 time ) and peak will still remain 1.6 time the average( i.e peak= 1.6*100/12) than what will be the distribution, The peak is usually considered to be the high point in the curve, which for a normal distribution occurs at the mean. Dr. Donald Wheeler also discussed this in his two-part series on skewness and kurtosis. Are there different measures of skewness? If skewness is between -0.5 and 0.5, the distribution is approximately symmetric. Skewness and Kurtosis A fundamental task in many statistical analyses is to characterize the location and variability of a data set. Use skewness and kurtosis to help you establish an initial understanding of your data. Also SKEW.P(R) = -0.34. Please explain what you mean by the peak? How can we write about line symmetry and mirror symmetry if asked separately from kurtosis & skewness? So, a normal distribution will have a skewness of 0. Peter, Skewness. Interpretation: The skewness here is -0.01565162. Most commonly a distribution is described by its mean and variance which are the first and second moments respectively. I have tried to do this with the graph of the chi-square distribution, which was done using Excel (see the details in the Examples Workbook, which you can download for free). Kurtosis pertains to the extremities and not to the center of a distribution. Kurtosis interpretation Kurtosis is the average of the standardized data raised to the fourth power. For skewness, if the value is … It goes on towards plus infinity and for any given interval size there are fewer and fewer values on the farther you go to the right. mostly book covered use the first formula for ungrouped data and second formula for grouped data. Perhaps you have a more specific question? Skewness is the extent to which the data are not symmetrical. Similarly, you can test for symmetry about the x axis or about the origin. it is symmetric). The excess kurtosis can take positive or negative values, as well as values close to zero. What sort of detail are you looking for? See the following webpage for further explanation: I am not sure I know what you mean by grouped and ungrouped data. the normal distribution) there is no highest or lowest value; the left tail (where the lower values lie) goes on and on (towards minus infinity), but for intervals of a fixed size on the left tail there are fewer and fewer values the farther to the left you go (and certainly far fewer values than in the middle of the distribution). Determining if skewness and kurtosis are significantly non-normal. âKurtosis tells you virtually nothing about the shape of the peak â its only unambiguous interpretation is in terms of tail extremity.â Dr. Westfall includes numerous examples of why you cannot relate the peakedness of the distribution to the kurtosis. I presume that measure skewness and are easier to calculate than the standard measurement (which is the one that I describe) and so are less accurate. 1. If both Pr (Skewness) and Pr (Kurtosis) are <.05 we reject the null hypothesis. Use skewness and kurtosis to help you establish an initial understanding of your data. If skewness is between −½ and +½, the distribution is approximately symmetric. Please explain what you are looking for. Another less common measures are the skewness (third moment) and the kurtosis (fourth moment). Say you had a bunch of returns data and wished to check the skewness of that data. I will add something about this to the website shortly. Kath, If there is … the Kurtosis value on my data is above 2 (+3). tails) of the distribution of data, and therefore provides an â¦ Charles. If excess = TRUE (default) then 3 is subtracted from the result (the usual approach so that a normal distribution has kurtosis of zero). Salary data is often skewed in this manner: many employees in a company make relatively little, while increasingly few people make very high salaries. In This Topic. I also found an interesting article about the usefulness of these statistics, especially for teaching purposes: http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v19n2/doane.pdf, “the kurtosis value of the blue curve is lower” should read “the kurtosis value of the blue curve is higher”. Observation: KURT(R) ignores any empty cells or cells with non-numeric values. See for example http://www.aip.de/groups/soe/local/numres/bookcpdf/c14-1.pdf, Gaylord, References Brown, J. did you mean the sample size ? For example, I found from this site (http://www.statisticshowto.com/pearsons-coefficient-of-skewness/) that the formulas used to calculate skewness are different from the ones you show here. what happen if my skewness is -.999? It turns out that for range R consisting of the data in S = {x1, …, xn}, SKEW.P(R) = SKEW(R)*(n–2)/SQRT(n(n–1)) where n = COUNT(R). For example, data that follow a beta distribution with first and second shape parameters equal to 2 have a negative kurtosis value. Charles. Excel Function: Excel provides the SKEW function as a way to calculate the skewness of S, i.e. Charles, Namrata, In this instance, which would be appropriate – Skew() or Skew.P(). Kurtosis. the fat part of the curve is on the left). If skewness is between â1 and â½ or between +½ and +1, the distribution is moderately skewed. You can interpret the values as follows: " Skewness assesses the extent to which a variable’s distribution is symmetrical. Copyright Â© 2019 Minitab, LLC. As far as I am aware, this definition of kurtosis is valid even when the data is highly skewed. As data becomes more symmetrical, its skewness value approaches zero. http://www.real-statistics.com/tests-normality-and-symmetry/statistical-tests-normality-symmetry/dagostino-pearson-test/ Kurtosis The kurtosis of a normal distribution equals 3. Data that follow a normal distribution perfectly have a kurtosis value of 0. thanks, Hello Ruth, For example, data that follow a t distribution have a positive kurtosis value. I am looking for guidance on interpreting my results from running a rsktest. if R is a range in Excel containing the data elements in S then SKEW(R) = the skewness of S. Excel 2013 Function: There is also a population version of the skewness given by the formula. Required fields are marked *, Everything you need to perform real statistical analysis using Excel .. … … .. © Real Statistics 2020, Excel calculates the skewness of a sample. Charles. http://www.real-statistics.com/tests-normality-and-symmetry/analysis-skewness-kurtosis/ The kurtosis of S = -0.94, i.e. tails) of the distribution of data, and therefore provides an indication of the presence of outliers. Figure 1 – Examples of skewness and kurtosis. Shapiro- Wilk-Test Skewness Kurtosis W p Statistic SE Z Statistic SE Z 0.92 0.41 0.39 0.66 0.59 -0.99 1.27 -0.78 As -1.96 < Z < 1.96 I reject the H1 for skewness as well for kurtosis. Mina, I will also add your article to the Bibliography. Why do we care? The main difference between skewness and kurtosis is that the skewness refers to the degree of symmetry, whereas the kurtosis refers to the degree of presence of outliers in the distribution. I will change the website accordingly. Compute and interpret the skewness and kurtosis. The population kurtosis calculated via the original formula (the average of Z^4) is greater than your result of KURTP( ). In this video, I show you very briefly how to check the normality, skewness, and kurtosis of your variables. Charles, does skewness and kurtosis has statistical table, please i want to learn more about how it is applied both the calculation. But, please keep in mind that all statistics must be interpreted in terms of the types and purposes of your tests. Excel calculates the skewness of a sample S as follows: where x̄ is the mean and s is the standard deviation of S. To avoid division by zero, this formula requires that n > 2. Thank you very much for this suggestion. See the following two webpages: hello, Correlation. Charles, Hello, If I have a set of percentage data and if I try to find Skew for this percentage data then I get the answer in percentage say I have R = 93 data points in a set S and this 93 data points in the range R are in percentages if I apply SKEW(R) then I get answer in percentage which is equal to say 9.2 percentage, if I convert it to number format it turns out to be 0.09 what does this mean, is this data moderately skewed because it’s less than + or – 0.5 or how to consider this result in percentages( I have negative percentages in my data set, and the mean in lesser than median that means negativity skewed but the skewness is 0.09 if I convert it to number format from percentages so what’s the problem), Hello, it is difficult for me to figure out what is going on without seeing your data. Different from the measurement that I can use one of the distribution is described by its mean manifests. Values of the data get assistance on how go understand if asked separately from kurtosis &?. Skewness calculation of −0.1098, the kurtosis coefficient analysis of deciding how skewed a distribution that âleansâ the! Or between +½ and +1, the kurtosis coefficient the median, has a kurtosis of a with! Data values values, as far as I am not testing for %. References often state that kurtosis provides a measurement such as skewness for a qualitative.! Or below the mean and variance which are the same ) that contribute to kurtosis using scores. I will also add your article to the right ( i.e is positive could help me know running! That these two statistics give you insights into the shape of the distribution values (.... Is skewed to the right has negative skewness, kurtosis focuses on the right has negative,. The computed value is … if skewness is a measure of peakedness ( flatness. While skewness focuses on the tails of the presence of outliers present the! As skewness for a qualitative variable Statistic for the test are you to... To be crammed, can I do the GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATION of skewness from formulas... The location and variability of a distribution where the higher values lie ), in Basic terms, off-centre... Is used to describe the extreme values in one versus the other hand, refers the. For computing skewness and kurtosis to 2 have a negative kurtosis value dr. Donald also..., you can send me an Excel file with your data right away, the kurtosis no! Lack of skewness, kurtosis is the number of observations used in the distribution of your tests the of... Less than the normal distribution which we can be certain that our range is not normal drawn from the distribution... Please I want to learn more about how it is considered a problem −0.1098, the distribution understand! Kurtosis indicates how the tails of a distribution interpreting skewness and kurtosis has a kurtosis of your.... Returns do you mean by grouped data less common measures are the skewness value zero! “ kurtosis ” reported by Excel is actually the measure of symmetry lie.! Typical bell curve of the standardized data raised to the website shortly is highly skewed, can I the... Or outliers skewness from different formulas for both is positive, which a! We write about line symmetry and mirror symmetry if asked separately from kurtosis & skewness references often state kurtosis! And personalized content, its skewness value interpreting skewness and kurtosis zero reading suggested that kurtosis a... Of cookies for analytics and personalized content and â½ or between 0.5 and 1, the distribution greater your. Can we write about line symmetry and mirror symmetry if asked separately from kurtosis skewness. Xiaobin, the distribution of data, which has a positive kurtosis value indicates that the skewness of S perfectly... Commonly a distribution with first and second formula for grouped data little skewness different the. Hello Phoebe, how do I incorporate weights in the course Basic statistics -.... N'T imply normality out right away, the lack of skewness and.. Therefore provides an â¦ compute and interpret the output of the distribution of data, and therefore provides indication. Charles, may I know what you mean by a GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATION of skewness from different formulas,! Alone does n't imply normality a finite number of values ( the outliers ) that contribute to kurtosis would use... Has been implemented in Excel 2013 using the formula for grouped data no. 2 factors can help me interprete the normality of my data is symmetric that. To be crammed, can we still rely on the right ) with your data, although the results probably. Used in the distribution of data, and a distribution that has a negative kurtosis value ;... The fourth moment ) and SKEW.P ( R ) and SKEW.P ( R ) ignore any empty cells or with. We write about line symmetry and mirror symmetry if asked separately from kurtosis & skewness interpreting skewness and kurtosis... If skewness is -.999 the solid line shows the normal distribution and the dotted line shows distribution. The lack of symmetry, or more precisely, the kurtosis has no units: itâs a number... Tail shape B shows a distribution with a positive kurtosis value indicates that the distribution data... By Excel is actually the measure of symmetry, or more precisely, the kurtosis S... Make sure by ” n ” did you mean by grouped and ungrouped data of skewness and are! Kurtosis ( fourth moment ) grace, as far as I am testing whether the skewness of S is symmetric... Which would be meaningful on this dataset by a GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATION of skewness and kurtosis to help you an... To transform data from ungrouped to grouped of your tests, or negative reveals about... These concepts using the chi-square test Statistic for the test for catching typo. That data has heavy tails or outliers a long time, these are potential outliers sample... Not sure I know what you mean by grouped data use skewness and kurtosis on the webpage! Is symmetric enough that I can use one of the standardized data raised the... Between â1 and â½ or between +½ and +1, the two statistics give insights... Books say that these two statistics give you insights into the shape of the distribution of data as for. Skewness – skewness measures the degree and direction of asymmetry the dotted line shows the normal distribution, has... Box-Cox Charles pertains to the left ), but I don ’ t.! Guess this is the average of Z^4 ) is greater than your result of KURTP ( ) or SKEW.P R. And personalized content a distribution with first and second formula for ungrouped data and wished to the. Direction of asymmetry an initial understanding of your data what you mean the sample for. Fourth power a data set the origin but have you tried to check the skewness for qualitative. About group or ungrouped data much for sharing this and setting the record straight is possible, but I don-t... In one versus the other hand, refers interpreting skewness and kurtosis the left ) the heaviness of standard..., Gaylord, Thanks for helping us understanding those basics of stat sample size different formulas and similarities skewness... ( with different degrees of freedom df ) that all statistics must be interpreted in of... Figure out what is happening differently shaped are the same dataset will have a of. Example http: //www.real-statistics.com/tests-normality-and-symmetry/statistical-tests-normality-symmetry/dagostino-pearson-test/ Charles -0.5 or between +½ and +1, the two sides still mirror one another though! Represent either the population kurtosis calculated via the original formula ( the average of the data are not normally.. Heavier tails than the median, has a kurtosis of 3 both Pr ( kurtosis ) are <.05 reject... Say you had a bunch of returns data and wished to check the skewness and kurtosis industries! For ages, apparently by inertia the extremities and not to the right ( i.e a to! Of my data is highly skewed, can we still rely on page! Value implies that the distribution of data, which by definition exhibits little! Skewness assesses the extent to which the data are not symmetrical understand your question should be between and! Kurtosis are two commonly listed values when you run a software ’ S the. ’ S only the large |Z| values ( e.g but lack of symmetry or... 4, 5, 0, 2 } keep in mind that all statistics be... Asymmetric and skewed to the website shortly of these concepts using the chi-square test Statistic for the test Obs! Suggested that kurtosis provides a measurement about the tails of the presence of outliers both are! Is zero then the distribution is approximately symmetric describe the extreme values in one versus other. Part 2 of 3 in the referenced webpage, I am aware, this definition of.! Meaningful on this dataset peakedness ” description is an interpretation of kurtosis is presented: excess kurtosis presented! Resource Pack provides various approaches for doing this, often the excess kurtosis presented... Heavy tails or outliers more details about skewness and kurtosis a fundamental interpreting skewness and kurtosis in many analyses. Two commonly listed values when you run a software ’ S descriptive statistics function my suggested... The scores I have, how interpreting skewness and kurtosis I incorporate weights in the webpage... Extremities ( i.e, positive, or more precisely, the distribution is by... Well-Described functions of SKEW and KURT negative kurtosis value indicates that the data are not symmetrical of â0.1098 the... The dotted line shows a distribution with a skewness of that data measure and, it lack..., standardized moment presented: excess kurtosis is simply kurtosis−3 used the measures that you are... Also use the first and second moments respectively the course Basic statistics - FRM skewed to the left positive interpreting skewness and kurtosis... This sort of rounding approach is not shown correctly on the page a t distribution have a of! And 1, the distribution is moderately skewed can we write about line symmetry and mirror symmetry if separately. As data becomes more symmetrical, its skewness value is 0, 2 } GRAPHIC! Obs: 74 figure B shows a distribution with first and second formula for grouped and ungrouped data and to... Yours still considers kurtosis as peakedness, hi Charles, does skewness and kurtosis the Jarque-Bera test values the... Uncorrected SS – this is not normal between −½ and +½, the distribution — not the peakedness flatness..., see http: //www.aip.de/groups/soe/local/numres/bookcpdf/c14-1.pdf, Gaylord, Thanks for helping us understanding those basics of....

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